The Albanians defended the Veternica canyon, while their families were sheltered on the Golak mountain.
They came to the same mountain, after they had been forced to leave the canyon A smaller part of the Albanians escaped towards Vranje The local Serbs took part in the fighting around Veternica. They showed a great hostility towards the Albanians by burning their houses, looting and chasing them The Albanians on the right Morava bank, in the region called Masurica, did not resist and remained in their villages The armistice between the Russians and the Turks stopped them in front of the city. A small number of them were expelled after the war, since the majority had left during the military operations.
Some influential officers initiated and supported such government measures. He did not allow the Albanians from Masurica to be moved out. But, they were expelled a bit later, when the general was on the leave. The only compact group of Albanians remained in the Jablanica valley. The Serbian population from Lab had moved to Serbia during and after the war in and then the Albanians inhabited their villages There were 31 Serbian-muchageer and 3 pure muchageer villages in the area southwest of the Serbian border, between Novo Brdo, the Kriva River, Gnilan and the Little Morava The Muslims from Pirot immigrated to the same regions, while some even settled in Istanbul They were usually settled on swampy or wooded land, which needed to be cultivated The refugees slowly created their own settlements within or beside the already existing in many cases Serbian villages, along the Serbia-Turkey border.
The native Muslims Turk. The mutual quarrels, fights and even murders were not rare The relations between the native Muslims and refugees were not much better in the cities either. They did not even consider the muchageers as Turks. The refugees, for example, did not use to hide women, like the natives. Besides, they changed the common way of trading.
The old one, based on trust and the given word, had vanished. The refugees introduced receipts, written contracts and interests, which were new and strange to the natives It seems, however, that they overtook it from the local Serbs and not from the Turks The refugees in Kosovo used to name themselves after the places from which they had come from.
They also used to give the same names to their new settlements. The refugees and their descendants could have been, therefore, easily recognized fifty years after the migration It is even less possible to speak about the number of Albanians, Turks or Czerkes, who moved out. I can only try to estimate the approximate number of Muslim emigrants, relying on the Serbian archive documents and travels.
I believe that the number of Albanians and Muslims in general, who emigrated from the new counties of Serbia, was much larger. I will be dealing here with the first division. One of the first duties of the new Serbian local authorities was to make the inventories of the districts and to create temporary communities. After they had completed that task, they sent reports to the Minister of education I have tried to establish the approximate number of Muslims who left according to these reports, which show the exact picture of the occupied territories, just after the end of the war.
Besides them, I have also used some travels from that time. March I shall be dealing only with the villages at the moment, and come back to the cities later. The number of houses in twelve villages remained unregistered, for those villages could not have been reached because of the snow. However, it is stated in the report that those villages were Albanian and that they were all abandoned It can be presumed that the Albanians 70 , who lived here, had as big families as their neighbours, the Serbs, for they all lived in the extended family groups.
The average number of inhabitants in one Serbian house was 8 8, Therefore, we shall rely on the data from M. The Muslims who left were the Albanians. It is likely that all of them moved out, considering the battles, which had been going on in the area. One Serbian house had about 9 9,12 inhabitants. Since they were not attached to Serbia, I shall not discuss them here. Besides, there were also 53 abandoned Albanian villages, which were not included in the previously mentioned number of settlements.
They were placed in the region called Pusta Reka Apart from these villages, the Albanians lived in three more communities next to them. These communities comprised 45 villages, of which 14 purely Albanian, 10 Serbian, 17 with a mixed population and there are no data for the 4 remained. There were Serbian and Albanian houses in these 41 villages. The last ones were vacant. The chief of the county administration stated in the report that in the 53 empty villages might have been approximately 30 houses each.
The average number of houses in the mentioned 41 villages was 27 27,4. The number of inhabitants is not stated in the report, but it can be presumed that the families had approximately 8 members, like in the other counties. In the Pusta Reka district, which was established after the Berlin congress, the average number of inhabitants in one house was exactly 8 76 , which confirms the previous assumption.
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This fact gives the opportunity to check the stated estimations about the number of emigrants. I know only that Albanians remained in 8 villages of the Masurica region According to the antropogeographic researches of R. Still, according to the stated data, I am not able to even estimate the whole number of Albanians, who emigrated from the villages of this district. There were 80 villages, inhabited by the Serbs. They worked on the land, which mostly belonged to the Turks.
However, it is not possible to say how many of them were there, or how many people left them. That was not the case in the cities. Therefore, I have chosen to deal separately with the number of the Muslims who emigrated from the cities. The data stated in the M. This figure matches the number of the city inhabitants in 91 , so it can be accepted as correct.
One Serbian family had approximately 6,75 members. It is certain, however, that the total number of Muslim emigrants was bigger, but for lack of sources it can not be established. In , this county comprised a part of the former Leskovac county, including that town. The Muslims lived mostly in the cities.
The relative biggest number of the Muslims stayed in the Vranje county. They were the ones, who had surrendered to the Serbian army and waited for the end of the war in their homes. However, it should be kept in mind that the Albanians had been the majority in this area before the war. They were obviously expelled later. The Muslims from the Jablanica district enjoyed the special protection of the Prince Milan. The Albanians from Masurica had been moved out.
The Albanians stayed almost only in the Toplica county and their percentage did not change there in comparison with It means that the Government did not disturb them and that they had started to adjust to the way of life in Serbia.
The law about the colonization of these regions was passed, and the populating began. Families of Serbian rebels from the regions Lab and Kopaonik, who had escaped to Serbia in , had settled in the vacant Albanian villages in the upper Toplica The Serbs, who had stayed in Lab after the war, had also moved into the new counties A lot of Serbs from the sanjak of Novi Pazar had moved into Toplica Some Montenegrins settled in the same county, in the period A large part of the Serbian population from Kosovo had immigrated in Serbia after the war, under the pressure of Albanian refugees So, instead of Muslims, Serbs had come.
There are no data about the number of immigrants. It is likely that even the Serbian authorities did not know their number As soon as it was established, the Serbian local administration started to collect the food remained in the empty houses and to put it in the warehouses Naturally, the local inhabitants had taken a part of it, before the authorities managed to collect, or even list it In many cases, the Turks were the landowners, and the Serbian peasants were tilling the soil and they had to give a certain part of the harvest to the Turks.
All of the Turkish state property, as well as the private land of those Muslims, who tilled it by themselves, had been rented out. The peasants who worked on the Turkish private land had to continue to do so, until the final solution was found In the Serbian authorities had to deal with the same problem. In , the situation was different. According to article 39 of the Berlin treaty, Muslims, who did not wish to live in Serbia, were allowed to keep their property and to rent it to other people.
This article disabled the ceding of the land to peasants without any payments to its owners, and the Serbian Government did not have enough money to give compensations to the Turks. February by which was decided that the peasants should pay for the land by themselves. Prices and payment conditions were to be established by free bargain. The peasants had misused this law in different ways, so the Government was forced to float a loan abroad and to pay off the former landowners A very important condition for the integration of the new regions in the Principality of Serbia was fulfilled in this way.
The Albanians were then mostly concentrated along the demarcation line. They were often crossing it, for they could steal cattle and food and, sometimes, the conflicts between them and the Serbian guards occurred. Such skirmishes became quite frequent in April and May After the Berlin congress, the situation in the border area was still tensed. The Serbian Government protested at the Porte, but its complaints remained unanswered In order to free itself from the pressure, the Government sent one military delegation to the Albanian clan chiefs to discuss that matter with them.
For the lack of trust on both sides, the negotiations failed and the refugees remained in Turkey Different kinds of violence had been committed on them.
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The Albanians were exasperated, since they had lost a war against Serbia. Therefore, they took their revenge on the Serbs who lived in Kosovo In the years after the Berlin congress, a lot of Serbs moved out from Kosovo, because of the Albanian violence they were exposed to. In this way, the Serbs, who remained in Kosovo, were finally outnumbered by the Albanians Some of them were hostile to each other.
A notion about an integral Albanian nation did not exist among the Albanians from Kosovo. Their conscience was tribal. During the war against Serbia, they expressed only local-patriotism. We were able to stand up to our Ottoman oppressors and conquerors by proudly preserving our culture. When the time came, we were able to break free and become our own country. Serbia had a place in the past, continues to have a place in the global community now, and we will continue to hold our heads high among the community of nations long into the future.
We have so much to give and we have so much to contribute. We are proud, we are few, but we have so much love for our country and for each other. We are proud to be Serbians. If you are looking for great information about your mother culture and motherland, this is the place to be. Tell your friends all about us. We are one people.
We have the same blood running through our veins. All this blood traces back to our mother country, Serbia. We are firm believers in Serbian culture. We know that there is no other country in the world that is quite like Serbia. Be Proud of Being Serbian.